Jim Maas has a simple answer for employers who want to contain escalating health care costs and increase productivity, job satisfaction and creativity: Encourage your workers to get one more hour of sleep each night.
Most adults need 71/2; to 81/2; hours of shut-eye per night. A very few can get away with 61/2; Others need more than 10. But Maas, a 75-year-old pioneer in sleep research, says that almost everyone is running on a 47- to 60-minute deficit. That might not sound like much, but it's enough to create a zombie nation. "When you add one hour of sleep, most people say, 'My gosh! I never knew what it was like to be awake and alert before,' " he said. "It's a profound difference."
Here are Jim Maas' 10 tips for nocturnal bliss:
1. Get a high-coil-count mattress that keeps your head, neck and spinal cord aligned as if you were standing.
2. Invest in a great pillow that conforms to your sleeping style (side, back or stomach) and immediately springs back when folded in half.
3. Cut out all nicotine, including smokeless tobacco. It's a stronger stimulant than caffeine.
4. Set the thermostat at 65 to 67 degrees.
5. Put masking tape over the electronic lights that make your bedroom look like a NASA control room.
6. Don't consume caffeine in the afternoon or alcohol within three hours of bedtime.
7. Avoid using electronics - computers, laptops, iPads, Nooks or TVs - an hour before bedtime. You can also buy blue-spectrum-blocking glasses to wear for a few hours before bedtime.
8. Create a pre-sleep routine of a hot bath, warm Jacuzzi or light protein/high-carbohydrate snack.
9. Soothe your soul with music, meditation, yoga or light reading.
10. Write down your worries to get them out of your head.
Maas, retired chairman of the psychology department at Cornell University, recently moved his consulting business, Sleep for Success LLC, to Keller, Texas, so he could be near his son and daughter-in-law.
In the past four decades, Maas has given thousands of sermons trying to persuade companies that a sleep-deprived workforce is a drain on their bottom lines. "People who aren't getting enough sleep are much more at risk for hypertension, heart attacks and strokes, Type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, periodontal disease, obesity and cancer," Maas says. "Then there are the issues of mental and emotional health. All of that translates into higher insurance costs."
Add in employees who are experiencing slumps in creativity and alertness and those who are grumpy from too little sleep, and companies have real cause for alarm.
Younger members of the workforce, those younger than 26, need 91/4 hours of sleep to handle a spurt in growth hormones. Anyone who's observed the typical lifestyle of millennials knows this isn't happening.
Ken Blanchard, author of "One Minute Manager" and Maas' friend since graduate school, says his buddy is on to something big. "Wall Street has goofed up business because it acts like the only reason to be in business is to make money," Blanchard said. "Sometimes we need to kick our people out of the office, get them home to their families and to rest."
The medical profession has begun to embrace the importance of sleep only in the past decade, Maas said. "The bedroom was ignored and thought to be a vast wasteland of inactivity. Nothing could be further from the truth."
We need sleep to reset and maintain our endocrine, hormone, immunity and cardiac functions, he said. "The brain is more active at night than it ever is during the day."
Maas taught introductory psychology to 65,000 students during his 48 years at Cornell. He was an on-campus celebrity who packed almost 2,000 students into the university's concert hall every semester.
But when he started teaching in 1964, textbooks had only a few paragraphs about sleep. "Since kids are always tired in college, I wanted to know why," he recalled. "And if we spend two-thirds of our lives doing something, I thought it ought to be part of a psychology course."
The lecture he developed about sleep and performance was by far the students' favorite. As a young professor, Maas was lucky to get six hours of sleep. Today, he "almost religiously" gets eight hours. When travel interferes, he takes a power nap.
So are you sleep-deprived?
If you fall asleep the minute your head hits the pillow, the answer is yes, he said. "It takes about 20 minutes for the well-rested person to fall asleep."
You may be sabotaging the onset of sleep if you use electronic devices an hour before hitting the sack. They emit blue spectrum light that inhibits the release of melatonin, the hormone that facilitates sleep.